History

    A physician named Kerner first thought about the possible therapeutic use of botulinum toxin. In 1897, Emile van Ermengem found the organism responsible for the production of the botulin toxin was a bacterium, which he named Clostridium botulinum. In 1949 it was discovered that botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission.

    In the early 1980s, ophthalmologists in the U.S.A. and Canada further refined the use of botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent. By 1985, a scientific protocol of injection sites and dosage had been determined for treatment of blepharospasm (eyelid spasm) and strabismus (lazy eye). Side effects were deemed to be rare, mild and treatable.

    The cosmetic effect of botulinum toxin (BTX) on wrinkles was originally documented by plastic surgeon Dr. Richard Clark 1989. Canadian physicians Carruthers and Carruthers were the first to publish a study on BTX for the treatment of frown lines in 1992. Ten years later the FDA announced the approval of botulinum toxin (BTX) to temporarily improve the appearance of moderate-to-severe frown lines between the eyebrows (glabella lines).